The concept of Islamophobia as anti-Muslim racism is establishing itself in social science and public discourse alike. Yet there is a tendency to focus on Muslims as an ‘Other’, an ascribed identity, at the expense of Muslim inter-subjectivity and agency. ‘Othering’ analysis also does not attend to how to distinguish between Islamophobia and reasonable criticism of Muslims and Islam. Moreover, the possibility of mutual criticism based on dialogue, as well as group intersubjectivity and agency are important for multicultural recognition and accommodation.
Tariq Modood is Professor of Sociology, Politics and Public Policy and the founding Director of the Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship at the University of Bristol. He was awarded a MBE for services to social sciences and ethnic relations in 2001, made a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in 2004 and elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 2017. He pioneered the idea of anti-Muslim racism in the 1990s, which has now become the leading interpretation of Islamophobia. He has held over 40 grants and consultancies, has over 35 (co-)authored and (co-)edited books and reports and over 200 articles and chapters. His latest book is Essays on Secularism and Multiculturalism (2019). His website is www.tariqmodood.com