Europe is undergoing a crisis of academic freedom. This is as much an intellectual crisis as it is empirical - policy and regulatory. The last 20 years have seen unprecedented developments in Europe: new concepts, models, standards and institutions, many of continental-wide relevance and impact, in teaching and learning and research, and in the policy and management of higher education. During this time, the concept of academic freedom has been systematically ignored by academics, university leaders and policy makers alike. It is currently a confused and underdeveloped concept. A common European reference for academic freedom is missing. In daily practices, academic freedom is often attacked, restricted if not repressed, not only in Turkey, Russia and Hungary, but also in the UK, Germany and France. The talk will look at the place of anti-racism and anti-Semitism in defining this crisis and in the efforts to overcome it.