A Latin-American perspective
Global Street Semianar with Iliana Mignaqui et Doris Tarchopulos
Discussant: Sophie Body-Gendrot (Sorbonne Paris-IV ; sous réserve) with Saskia Sassen (Columbia University)
►New Urbanities, Dynamics Of Inclusion, Exclusion And Expulsion: Buenos Aires - Paris
Iliana Mignaqui ((University of Buenos Aires)
Processes of economic, religious, ethnic, and cultural exclusion have been heightened in the last twenty years, thus increasing urban conflict. Displaced by war, natural disasters or drug trafficking, landless peasants displaced by the advance of new agricultural frontiers, excluded from access to housing and the labour market, evicted and homeless, make up a group that finds a place of visibility, shelter and residence in urban space.
The growth of precarious and ephemeral habitats is not limited to the cities of countries in development; it is also growing in the major capitals of Europe and the USA and is materialized in various forms of constructions such as camps, tents, shelters; sometimes in 'Villa miseria', favelas, shantytowns; or in thousands of people living in the street.
How are these various types of exclusion from urban space manifesting themselves and what kind of spatialities do they build? Are we facing new forms of urban nomadism?
Which answers can urban policies provide to those living in these ephemeral constructions or on the streets and who has been excluded from the right to the city?
The absence of inclusive public policies, and the repression of conflicts over social uses and appropriation of urban space, intensify social conflict and in many cases make invisible those who built a place to live through resistance.
If we understand urbanity as the set of rules to manage the relationship with others (Giglia, 2000) or the reciprocal setting between a form of spatial organization and a way of living together (Choay, 2006) is the coexistence of alternative urbanities possible, starting with the recognition of these mobile, ephemeral and changing spatialities?
In this framework, we will present a comparative analysis between Buenos Aires and Paris of the dynamics of inclusion, exclusion and expulsion, from the perspective of spatial justice and reflecting on the new resulting urbanities. It will also reflect on the role of existing urban policies, and new spaces of emancipation and resistance to repressive police actions or disciplinary devices constructed by the State to try to control or to make them invisible.
►Medellin in Paris: Social Exclusion, Violence And Urbanism
Doris Tarchópulos (Architecte, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombie)
In this Global Street seminar I explore the case of informal settlements in Medellín, whose selfconstruction process was initiated in the 1970s by an illiterate and uneducated peasant population displaced from rural territories devastated by the armed conflict between the guerrilla and the Colombian state. These are neighborhoods of illegal origin located in the mountains of the periphery of Medellín that did not have public services, transportation, health, education, and cultural services, that is to say without any kind of urbanity. The whole of these neighborhoods formed an indeterminate territory because of its disconnection from the city but which in turn included spaces with problems of isolation and separation on the local scale. Consequently, they concentrated large pockets of marginality and extreme poverty, serious problems of violence, governance, and social decomposition.
Medellín was not prepared to attend to the migratory phenomenon nor to offer formal work and integrate the newly arrived population. In fact, the city was in the midst of a crisis of public institutions that coincided with the decline of its industry-based economic model, the rise in global cocaine consumption, the strengthening of organized crime groups initially linked to smuggling and subsequently to the production and trafficking of drugs, in addition to the formation of youth gangs and the projection of armed conflict in these informal neighborhoods. All these elements were a breeding ground to configure the city with the highest levels of exclusion - social fragmentation and violence of the world, during the eighties and nineties.
The decrease of violence and the recovery of Medellín has been widely documented and publicized. As a result of the joint effort between various public, private, community, solidarity and international cooperation actors, PUI Integrated Urban Projects have been implemented and their positive impacts in urban, social, economic and violence reduction terms have attracted international attention. Experience has shown that through urban planning strategies that are complex, participatory, and sensitive to informal issues, indeterminate spaces of urban scale can be transformed into equipped territories, connected and integrated with the formal city to favor inclusion and social identity. The configuration of the spaces at the local scale can be converted into links, continuities for the walk, reunion, interaction, communication, expression, fun, and education.